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Blood Processing
A. ABO Blood Grouping
ABO blood group can be divided into group A, group B, group O and group AB. ABO blood group is the most important because incompatible blood group transfusion can be fatal.
B. Rh(D) Factor
Rh(D) blood group can be divided into positive and negative types. Together with the ABO blood group, we can have eight major blood groups.
O+ O-
A+ A-
B+ B-


C. Atypical red cell antibodies screening
In addition to anti-A, anti-B, donor blood may contain atypical red cells antibodies, therefore, our blood grouping includes atypical red cell antibodies screening.
D. Infectious disease tesing
To protect patients' safety, every unit of blood will be tested by automated system to ensure they are negative for transfusion transmitted infections.
        Optional testings include
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies
  • Bacterial surveillance for every unit of platelet concentrates
E. Blood Labelling
Before blood is issued to hospitals, every unit of blood component will be labelled with blood group and expiry date.
Every unit contains a clearly labelled bar code for product identification and information for the staff to ensure proper handling before and during transfusion. The information includes an unique number traceable to blood donor, product information, blood group, and other important messages.
F. Blood Component Processing
Approximately 94% blood collected in quadruple blood bags will be processed into different blood components to meet with the patients transfusion requirement:

Red Cells - used in patients with anaemia and massive bleeding

Platelet Concentrates - used in the treatment of thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction

Fresh Frozen Plasma - provide coagulation factors or albumin

Cryoprecipitate - provide factor I and VIII coagulation factors

Buffy coats - for treatment of patients with severe neutropenia and bacterial or fungal infection

G. Blood Storage and Distribution
Blood Component storage temperature and shelf life
Blood Component Storage Temperature and Environment Shelf Life
Whole Blood 2 - 6 °C 28 - 35 days
Red Cells 2 - 6 °C 42 days
Platelet Concentrates 20 - 24 °C under continuous agitation 5 days
Fresh Frozen Plasma Below -30°C 365 days
Cryoprecipitate Below -30°C 365 days
The Storage and Issue Section is responsible for the monitoring of the blood demand and supply in Hong Kong and blood utilization. It operates 24 hours a day。Every year the BTS provides more than 470,000 units of blood components to all patients in Hong Kong。
H. Data Processing
Blood Donor information, donation records, tests results, and blood processing information are stored in the blood bank computer system. Before blood component are issued to hospitasl, the computer system will automatically check for the
component status to ensure only safe blood will be issued for transfusion use. The computer system has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is under strict control.














































































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